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“I've never met a human worth cloning,” says cloning expert Mark Westhusin from

时间:2019-10-17    点击: 次    来源:网络    作者:佚名 - 小 + 大

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“I've never met a human worth cloning,”says cloning expert Mark Westhusin from the cramped confines of his lab at Texas A&M University. “It's astupid endeavor.” That's an interesting choice of adjective, coming from a manwho has spent millions of dollars trying to clone a 13-year-old dog namedMissy. So far, he and his team have not succeeded, though they have cloned twocalves and expect to clone a cat soon. They just might succeed in cloning Missylater this year—or perhaps not for another five years. It seems thereproductive system of man's best friend is one of the mysteries of modernscience.

Westhusin's experience with cloning animalsleaves him vexed by all this talk of human cloning. In three years of work onthe Missyplicity project, using hundreds upon hundreds of canine eggs, theA&M team has produced only a dozen or so embryos carrying Missy's DNA. Nonehave survived the transfer to a surrogate mother. The wastage of eggs and themany spontaneously aborted fetuses may be acceptable when you're dealing withcats or bulls, he argues, but not with humans. “Cloning is incrediblyinefficient, and also dangerous,” he says.

Even so, dog cloning is a commercialopportunity, with a nice research payoff. Ever since Dolly the sheep was clonedin 1997, Westhusin's phone at A&M College of Veterinary Medicine  has been ringing busily. Cost is no obstaclefor customers like Missy's mysterious owner, who wishes to remain unknown toprotect his privacy. He's plopped down $3.7 million so far to fund  the research because he wants a twin to carryon Missys fine qualities after she dies. But he knows her clone may not haveher temperament. In a statement of purpose, Missy's owner and the A&M teamsay they are “both looking forward to studying the ways that her clone differsfrom Missy.”

The fate of the dog samples will depend onWesthusin's work. He knows that even if he gets a dog viably pregnant, theoffspring, should they survive, will face the problems shown at  birth by other cloned animals: abnormalitieslike immature lungs and heart and weight problems. Why would you ever want to clone humans, Westhusin asks, when were noteven close to getting it worked out in animals yet?”[397 words

6. Mr. Westhusin thinks cloning isdangerous because_____ .

A animals are tortured to death in the experiments

Bthe public has expressed strong disapproval

C too many lives are wasted for laboratory use

D cloning becomes a quest only for profit

7. What is the problem confronting theMissyplicity project?

A The client holds a suspicious view toward it.

B There is a lack of funds to support the research.

C The owner is unwilling to disclose the information.

D Cloning dogs is a difficult biological problem.

8. Which of the following is true aboutanimal cloning?

AFew private cloning companies could afford it

BFew people have realized its significance.

C An exact copy of a cat or bull can be made.

D It is becoming a prosperous industry.

9. From the passage we can infer that_____.

A Mr. Westhusin is going to clone a dog soon

B scientists are pessimistic about human cloning

C human reproductive system has not been understood

D rich people are only interested in cloning animals

10. Mr. Westhusin seems to believe thatcloning______.

A is stupid and should be abandoned     B has been close tosuccess

C should be taken cautiously                  D is now in a dilemma


confines n. limits or borders范围,界限;边界 例:the confines of human knowledge 人类的知识范围 / the confines of family life 家庭生活的范围


aborted a. *① 流产的 ② 出问题的,出故障的

canine a. 犬的,犬科的

cramped a. 狭窄的,拥挤的 例:working in cramped conditions 在拥挤的环境里工作

embryo n. 胚胎

fetus n. 胎,胎儿

Missyplicity n.这是个临时造的词,是三个部分的合成:Missy指文中提到的那条狗密斯,


plop vi.&vt.(使)扑通一声落下 例:Can you plop some ice in my drink? 能在我的饮料中放点冰块吗?文中是比喻用法,指“投入资金”

surrogate n.代理, 代理人,代用品 vt.使代理, 使代替;*surrogate mother 代理母体

veterinary a.兽医的 例:veterinary medicine/science兽医学

vexed a.*① 气恼的,烦恼的 例:the vexed parents of an unruly teenager因孩子难管教而气恼的父母②(问题等)争论不休的,难于解决的 例:vexedquestion/issue棘手的问题

viably ad. ① 可实施地,切实可行地 *② 能存活地,能生长发育地


1. That's an interesting choice ofadjective, coming from a man who has spent millions of dollars trying to clonea 13-year-old dog named Missy.

该句主干是That's aninteresting choice of adjective。现在分词短语comingfrom... 做后置定语,修饰前面的名词choice,相当于一个定语从句(which iscoming from... ;在分词短语中,定语从句who... 也做后置定语,修饰先行词a man

2. He knows that even if he gets a dogviably pregnant, the offspring, should they survive, will face the problemsshown at birth by other cloned animals: abnormalities like immature lungs andheart and weight problems.

该句主干是He knows that... that引导的宾语从句是一个主从复合句,且从句位于主句之前,主句是the offspring will face the problems... ;从句是让步状语从句:even if he gets a dog viably pregnantshould they survive是个省略了if的条件状语从句,为插入语,修饰主句。另外,主句的宾语the problems后接有过去分词短语shown... 做后置定语,相当于一个定义从句(thatare shown... ;冒号后的名词短语做theproblems的同位语。




引用专家Mark Westhusin和一位试图克隆其爱犬的富人的话(never met a human worth cloninga stupid endeavor)表达作者的观点。接着介绍MarkWesthusin所进行的克隆动物的实验(two calvesa cat and a dog),并特别指出对狗的克隆最具难度(one of the mysteries of modern science)。


第二段:指出Mark Westhusin克隆动物的经验使他极力反对克隆人(vexed by talking of human cloning)。首句是段落主题句。段中详细介绍了一个克隆狗的项目(the Missyplicity project)中出现的状况:①从成百上千的卵中只获得一打左右基因匹配的胚胎;②转移到母体时没有一个胚胎存活下来。从这些细节中可以推出,克隆是低效而且危险的。这在末句“Cloning is incredibly inefficient, and also dangerous”得到了证实。该段最后还给出了Mark Westhusin的观点:动物实验中的浪费现象在人的研究中不能被接受。因此,该段将Mark Westhusin反对克隆人的态度表露无疑。

第三段:分析指出,(虽然克隆是危险的)克隆狗仍然存在巨大的商机(a commercial opportunity)。首句是段落主题句,其中even so是转折标志词,表明该段与上一段在含义上存在转折。该段描述了“商机”的具体表现:电话频频响起(ringing busily)。接着分析存在商机的原因:①以Missy的主人为例指出,人们不惜花费巨资(cost is no obstacle; plopped down $3.7 billion);②同样以Missy的主人为例指出,客户与研究者能够达成共识(bothlooking forward to studying the ways)。


首先说明克隆狗存在的问题(face theproblems shown at birth),然后引用专家MarkWesthusin的话否认目前存在克隆人的可行性(notclose to getting worked out in animals yet, why want to clone humans)。




1. 事实细节题



目前克隆动物存在的问题:①存活几率低(nonehave survived);②有先天性疾病(problems shownat birth; abnormalities)。



2. 作者观点、态度题

本文作者主要借Mark Westhusin的话来表达自己的观点,因此该人物的观点和态度与作者完全一致。

从全文第一句、第二段第一句和全文最后一句可以推出,Mark Westhusin(或作者)对克隆人持明确的否定态度。由第一段末话可知,作者认为,狗的克隆是生物学上的难题(one of the mysteries of modern science)。由于Mark Westhusin一直在从事动物克隆的研究,因此作者不可能对动物克隆持完全否定态度,但文中Mark Westhusin也多次提到动物克隆存在的危险,因此作者的态度应该是谨慎的。参见试题10。也可以考查Mark Westhusin(或作者)对待克隆的总体态度,如:[A] 克隆动物是愚蠢的;[B]人类克隆还没有接近成功;[C] 克隆是低效的,应该被完全禁止;[D] 动物克隆可以,克隆人则不行。  (答案:[D])

3. 人物观点题。


4. 词义句意题

根据上下文推测第二段末句Cloning isincredibly inefficient, and also dangerous的隐含含义,如:[A] 实验室研究人员需要非常小心才能克隆成功;[B] 克隆动物可能死于疾病或感染;[C]实验过程中浪费很多生命;[D] 克隆动物比正常的动物体质差。(答案:[C])



A]实验中的动物被折磨至死    B]公众表达了强烈的不满

C]实验浪费了很多生命           D] 克隆成为仅仅追求利益的行为

[精解] 答案C本题考查因果细节。根据题干定位到第二段末“Cloning...also dangerous”。其上文即该段倒数第二句中,威斯苏森先生指出,在猫或牛的克隆试验中,对动物卵的浪费以及许多动物的自然性流产都可以接受,但是克隆人就不行。因此可知,[C]是“危险”的真正含义。[A]中torture(折磨)一词无从推知;[B]项文中未提及;第三段首句虽然提到,狗的克隆有很大的商机,但不能由此推出[D]正确。


A]客户对它持怀疑态度。       B] 没有足够的资金支持这项研究。

C]狗的主人不愿意透漏信息。[D] 狗的克隆是一个生物难题。

[精解] 答案D本题考查事实细节。题干中theMissyplicity project指克隆一只名叫密斯的狗的项目。第一段倒数第二句指出,克隆密斯可能成功也可能失败。该段最后一句解释其原因是:狗的生殖系统似乎是现代科学中一个神秘的领域。因此[D]为正确项。



A]很少有私人克隆公司能够承担。              B] 很少有人意识到它的意义。


[精解] 答案D本题考查事实细节。第三段首句提到,克隆狗是能带来丰厚科研报酬的商机。下文无论是提到动医学院频繁接到的电话,还是举出一掷千金想克隆爱犬的富人的例子都是为了说明首句的观点。因此[D]正确。



A]威斯苏森很快将克隆出一只狗[B] 科学家对克隆人持悲观态度

C]人类的生殖系统还没有被了解[D] 富有的人只对克隆动物感兴趣

[精解] 答案B本题考查推理。文章一开始就引用专家威斯苏森的话,指出克隆人是愚蠢的尝试。第二段最后两句提到,克隆实验的低效性和危险性在克隆人中不可接受。文章末尾再次引用该专家的话,指出现在动物的研究还没成功,没有必要想到克隆人。由此可见以威斯苏森为代表的科学家对克隆人是持悲观态度的。[B]为正确项。



A]是愚蠢的,应该被放弃[B] 已经接近成功

C]应该谨慎对待              D] 现在正处于进退维谷的境地

[精解] 答案C本题考查文中人物观点。注意题干问的是“克隆”,它包括了克隆人和克隆动物两个方面。第二段末句中,威斯苏森先生强调了克隆的低效性和危险性;文末他又指出,克隆动物的研究还没有接近成功时,更别提克隆人。因此,[C]概括了他对于克隆的整体态度。

文章第二句出现的a stupidendeavor是威斯苏森先生对克隆人的看法,不包括克隆动物,因此排除[A]。[B]与文章末句not yet close to getting it worked out相矛盾。从第二段倒数第二句可知,威斯苏森先生对于克隆动物是默许的,并不认为克隆处于进退维谷的境地,排除[D]。


“我还没有遇到一个值得克隆的人。” 克隆专家马克威斯苏森在德克萨斯州农业机械大学空间狭小的实验室里说。“那是一种愚蠢的尝试。”有趣的是,这种用来形容克隆人的言辞竟然来自一位已花费数百万美金试图克隆一只13岁的名叫密斯的狗的人。到目前为止,他和他的团队还没有获得成功,尽管他们已经克隆出了两只牛并且正计划在短期内克隆出一只猫。他们可能会在年底成功克隆出密斯,也可能再过五年都不会成功。人类最亲密的朋友——狗的生殖系统似乎是现代科学中一个神秘的领域。




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